David Bodian, PhD, MD
Born: May 15, 1910
Died: September 18, 1992
A long-time polio researcher, Bodian and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins demonstrated that there were only three strains of poliovirus: Type I, Type II and Type III. The distribution percentage (82.1%, 10.2%, 7.7% respectively) found in the early samples of the late 40s held. Bodian demonstrated that the poliovirus was transmitted through the mouth (oral route) and digestive tract to the bloodstream and then to the nerves. This was counter to the long-held idea that the virus entered the nose and went directly to the nerves.
Brief biography: Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1910, Bodian attended the University of Chicago receiving both his PhD and MD (1937). His earlier contribution was to the method of staining nerve tissue. He joined the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1942. His noted colleagues, who also studied poliomyelitis, were Howard A. Howe and Isabel M. Morgan.
Because of his two-decade career of exclusively studying polio, Bodian served on several important committees (e.g., Committee on Typing, Committee on Immunization and the 1960s United States Public Health Service Ad Hoc Committee on Live Polio Vaccine) established by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP), the National Institutes of Health and the Division of Biological Standards.
His lab also introduced the use of the chimpanzee as the animal best suited for experimentation because the species had a greater sensitivity to the poliovirus.
Bodian was involved in research that concluded that the poliovirus multiplied within parts of the brain as well as the spinal cord. His studies published during the 1940s showed that monkeys that appeared not be affected by polio may have had as much nerve damage as those who did but that the distribution of the destroyed motor neurons were too scattered to show clinically-evident functional loss. His histopathologic study of 24 human brains of those who died from acute poliomyelitis showed that all had damage or lesions in the brain, but with great variation in the severity of the involvement. The same centers were involved in almost all cases. The severest lesions were found in the brain stem.
Location of papers:
Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
5801 Smith Avenue, Suite 235
Baltimore, MD 21209
On-line repository guide to unprocessed papers (100 linear feet).
Major Articles: David Bodian, PhD, MD
Articles found at HighWire Press® Standford University. (*Asterisk denotes article is free of subscription fee.)
Historical Paper: Poliomyelitis Infection In Households: Frequency Op Vibemia And Specific Antibody Response. David Bodian, Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., V. O. Wilson, L. A. Weed, T. B. Magath, L. A. Buie, H. E. Harrison, And L. Finberg Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1995; 142: 453 - 468.
Poliomyelitis Immune Status In Ecologically Diverse Populations, In Relation To Virus Spread, Clinical Incidence, And Virus Disappearance. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., David Bodian, R. T. Hyde, M. M. Potter, O. Jensen, P. V. Gharpure, N. P. Cosco, J. V. Hultin, And H. M. Rubinstein. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1961; 74: 311 - 325.
Poliovirus In Chimpanzee Tissues After Virus Feeding. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1956; 64: 181 - 197. The Enhancement Of Susceptibility Of Monkeys To Polioviruses Of High And Of Low Virulence. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1956; 64: 92 - 103.
Physiological Changes in Sympathetic Ganglia Infected With Pseudorabies Virus. John Dempsher, Martin G. Larrabee, Frederik B. Bang, and David Bodian. Am J Physiol -- Legacy Content, Jul 1955; 182: 203 - 216. American Academy Of Pediatrics, Inc.
Proceedings And Reports: Background For Active Immunization Against Poliomyelitis. David Bodian. Pediatrics, Jan 1955; 15: 107 - 113. Pathogenesis of Poliomyelitis.* David Bodian. Am J Public Health, Nov 1952; 42: 1388 - 1402.
Solation Of Poliomyelitis Virus From The Throats Of Symptomless Children. Howard A. Howe and David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1947; 45: 219 - 222.
Poliomyelitis In An Uninoculated Rhesus Monkey, And In Orally Inoculated Monkeys, Receiving Desoxypyridoxine. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1948; 48.
Differentiation Of Types Of Poliomyelitis Viruses: I. Reinfection Experiments In Monkeys (Second Attacks). David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1949; 49: 200 - 224.
Differentiation Of Types Of Poliomyelitis Viruses: Iii. The Grouping Of Fourteen Strains Into Three Basic Immunological Types. David Bodian, Isabel M. Morgan, and Howard A. Howe. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1949; 49: 234 - 247.
Virus And Host Factors Influencing The Titer Of Lansing Poliomyelitis Virus In Monkeys, Cotton Rats And Mice. David Bodian, Isabel M. Morgan, and C. E. Schwerdt. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1950; 51: 126 - 133.
Subclinical Poliomyelitis In The Chimpanzee And Its Relation To Alimentary Reinfection. Howard A. Howe, David Bodian, and Isabel M. Morgan. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1950; 51: 85 - 108.
Second Attacks Of Paralytic Poliomyelitis In Human Beings In Relation To Immunity, Virus Types And Virulence: With A Report Of Two Cases, And Four Other Individuals Baltimore, 1944, Infected With Virus Of The Leon Type. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1951; 54: 174 - 190.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: I. Protection With Human Gamma Globulin Against Intramuscular Inoculation, And Combined Passive And Active Immunization. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1951;54:132 -143.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: II. The Prophylactic Effect Of Human Gamma Globulin On Paralytic Poliomyelitis In Gynomolgus Monkeys After Virus Feeding. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1952; 56: 78 - 89.
A Reconsideration Of The Pathogenesis Of Poliomyelitis. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1952; 55: 414 - 438.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: Ii Passive-Active Immunization And Pathogenesis After Virus Feeding In Chimpanzees. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1953; 58: 81 - 100.
Viremia In Experimental Poliomyelitis: Ii. Viremia And The Mechanism Of The "Provoking" Effect Of Injections Or Trauma. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1954; 60: 358 - 370.
Viremia In Experimental Poliomyelitis: I. General Aspects Of Infection After Intravascular Inoculation With Strains Of High And Of Low Invasiveness. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1954; 60: 339 - 357.
Poliomyelitis Infection In Households: Frequency Of Viremia And Specific Antibody Response. David Bodian and Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1954;60:8398.
The Spread Of Poliomyelitis: An Analysis Of Contact During Epidemic Periods. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., Viktor O. Wilson, David Bodian, and James Watt. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1954; 60: 63 - 82.
Chronic progressive poliomyelitis secondary to vaccination of an immunodeficient child. LE Davis, D Bodian, D Price, IJ Butler, and JH Vickers. N. Engl. J. Med., Aug 1977; 297: 241 - 245.
Emerging Concept of Poliomyelitis Infection. David Bodian. Science, Jul 1955; 122: 105 108.
Poliomyelitis Immunization: Mass use of oral vaccine in the United States might prevent definitive evaluation of either vaccine. David Bodian. Science, Sep 1961; 134: 819 – 822.
Articles found at ScienceDirect.com
Electron microscopic atlas of the simian cochlea. Hearing Research. David Bodian. Volume 9, Issue 2, February 1983, Pages 201-207.
Simplified method of dispersion of monkey kidney cells with trypsin Virology. David Bodian. Volume 2, Issue 4, August 1956, Pages 575-576 Histopathologic basis of clinical findings in poliomyelitis. David Bodian. The American Journal of Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 5, May 1949, Pages 563-578.
A note on the penetration of poliomyelitis virus from the gastrointestinal tract in the chimpanzee. Howard A. Howe and David Bodian. The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 21, Issue 6, December 1942, Pages 713-716 .
Articles found at JSTOR
Reviewed Work(s): Neurology of the Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat by E. A. Spiegel; I. Sommer Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 20, No. 2 (Jun., 1945), p. 179
Reviewed Work(s): Die Elemente der Nervosen Tatigkeit by A. E. Kornmuller Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 25, No. 1 (Mar., 1950), pp. 99-100 Reviewed Work(s): Explorer of the Human Brain. The Life of Santiago Ramon y Caja.l (1852-1934) by Dorothy F. Cannon Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 25, No. 1 (Mar., 1950), pp. 65-66
Reviewed Work(s): The Neuron. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Vol. XVII. Author(s) of Review: Chandler McC. Brooks The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 1954), pp. 84-85 (David Bodian mentioned in review.)
Reviewed Work(s): Praktikum der Vergleichenden Zoohistologie by Heinz Ludtke Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 40, No. 2 (Jun., 1965), p. 211
Presynaptic Organelles and Junctional Integrity. David Bodian. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 48, No. 3 (Mar., 1971), pp. 707-711
A Survey of Dehydrogenases in Various Epithelial Cells in the Rat. Donald G. Walker. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 17, No. 2 (May, 1963), pp. 255-277
An Electron Microscopic Characterization of Classes of Synaptic Vesicles by Means of Controlled Aldehyde Fixation. David Bodian. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan., 1970), pp. 115-124
Needs, Leads, and Indicators. Robert S. Morison. Science, Technology, & Human Values > Vol. 7, No. 38 (Winter, 1982), pp. 5-13 Sex and Age Determination in the Opossum. George A. Petrides. Journal of Mammalogy > Vol. 30, No. 4 (Nov., 1949), pp. 364-378
The Ultrastructure and Histophysiology of Human Eccrine Sweat Glands. Bryce L. Munger. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology Vol. 11, No. 2 (Nov., 1961), pp. 385-402
Edward George Gray 11 January 1924--14 August 1999. R. W. Guillery. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society > Vol. 48 (Dec., 2002), pp. 151-165
Scientific News and Notes of Academy Interest. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-) > Vol. 53, No. 4 (Dec., 1950), pp. 445-451
Program, Eighty-Third Annual Meeting, Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas, May 3,4 and 5, 1951 Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-) > Vol. 54, No. 2 (Jun., 1951), pp. 247-258
Ninety-Ninth Critical Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences (to January 1974). John Neu. Isis > Vol. 65, No. 5, Ninety-Ninth Critical Bibliography (1974), pp. 5-165+167-206.
One-Hundredth Critical Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences (to January 1975) . John Neu Isis > Vol. 66, No. 5, One Hundredth Critical Bibliography (1975), pp. 5-199+201-223.
Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Twelfth Annual Meeting, the American Society for Cell Biology. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 55, No. 2, Part 2: Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Twelfth Annual Meeting, The American Society for Cell Biology (Nov., 1972), pp. 1a-297a+299a-305a.
Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Nineteenth Annual Meeting, The American Society for Cell Biology. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 83, No. 2, Part 2: Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Nineteenth Annual Meeting, The American Society for Cell Biology (Nov., 1979), pp. 1a-479a+481a-496a.
Articles from WorldCat™
The projection of the lateral geniculate body on the cerebral cortex of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana ... David Bodian Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago, 1934. Philadelphia, 1935. OCLC: 32453672 Located at University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 United States; University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 United States; Duke University Library, Durham, NC 27708 United States.
A new method for staining nerve fibers and nerve endings in mounted paraffin sections. Bodian, David. Philadelphia.:1936. Description: Pp. 89-97. illus. 25 cm. Note(s): From The Anatomical Record, 65. Other Titles: Anatomical Record. Book Entry: 19920923 Update:19960403 Accession No: OCLC: 26655509
The Projection of the Lateral Geniculate Body on the Cerebral Cortex of the Oppossum. Didelphis Virginia. David Bodian. German. Book Chicago, 1935. OCLC: 52669238 Located at Staats und Universitätsbibliothek Göttin, Gottingen, D-37070, Germany
The rate of progression of poliomyelitis virus in nerves [and other papers]. David Bodian, Howard A Howe. 1941. OCLC: 42284868 Located at Yale University Library, New Haven, CT 06520 United States; Yale University Medical Library, New Haven, CT 06520 United States. Located at Queen’s Univ., Sci Library, UK
Neural Mechanisms in Poliomyelitis. Howard Atkinson Howe and David Bodian. 1942. New York, Commonwealth Fund. OCLC: 1068213 Located at 79 libraries.
The disposition of radioactive phosphorus in normal, as compared with regenerating and degenerating nervous tissue. D Bodian; D Dziewiatkowski. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 1950 Apr; 35(2): 155-77. Database: From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. ISSN: 0021-9541 | OCLC: 100866966 Located at 723 libraries.
Viral and rickettsial infections of man. Frank Lappin Horsfall, Thomas M Rivers, Igor Tamm. Philadelphia, Lippincott.1965.| OCLC: 398816 Located at 360 libraries.
George William Bartelmetz : March 23, 1885-Septembr 2, 1967. David Bodian. 1973. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 0231037074 9780231037075 | OCLC: 10491801 Located at University of Missouri, Columbia Columbia, MO 65203 United States; Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 United States; Columbia University Libraries New York, NY 10027 United States.
Professor David Bodian, M.D., Ph.D. (15 May 1910-18 September 1992). SL Palay. Journal of anatomy, 1994 Dec; 185 ( Pt 3): 673-6 Database: From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. ISSN: 0021-8782 | OCLC: 116854491 Located at 654 libraries.
David Bodian's contribution to the development of poliovirus vaccine. N. Nathanson. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2005 Feb 1; 161(3): 207-12. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Other Databases: ArticleFirst ISSN: 0002-9262 | OCLC: 110435591 Located at 821 libraries.
References from the book, Polio: An American Story by David M. Oshinsky: David Bodian et al., “Interim Report, Public Health Service Committee on Poliomyelitis Vaccine,” Journal of the American Medical Association, December 10, 1955, 1445.Howard A. Howe & David Bodian, Neural Mechanisms in Poliomyelitis (New York 1942) Bodian, David, “Poliomyelitis and the Sources of Useful Knowledge,” Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 1976, 131. References from the book, Patenting The Sun by Jane S. Smith: David Bodian, “Poliomyelitis: Pathogenesis, Policy, and Politics,” Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1962.
Key word suggestions for additional publication searches: poliomyelitis, viral and rickettsial infections, neural mechanisms.