Joseph Louis Melnick, PhD
Born: October 9, 1914
Died: January 7, 2001
An American, Dr. Melnick was among the first researchers to demonstrate that the poliovirus belongs to a group known as enteroviruses and that they only rarely invade the central nervous system. In 1961, he led a team that developed thermostabilized live polio vaccines, making possible the immunization of millions of people in countries without deep-freeze storage facilities. His team showed that the poliovirus was transmitted among people chiefly by fecal contamination. Known as the founder of modern virology, he was the first to conceptualize, classify and name a number of virus groupings (enteroviruses, picornaviruses, picodnaviruses or parvoviruses and papovaviruses).
Brief Biography: Dr. Melnick began his scientific career at Yale under Dr. John R. Paul, a renowned expert in polio. With Dr. Dorothy M. Horstmann, Dr. Melnick showed that flies could spread polio, but that they were not the main route of transmission. That information pushed Dr. Melnick to the forefront of environmental virology work. He documented the presence of hepatitis and other viruses in sewage, shellfish and soil, and documented that the standards to detect bacteria were inadequate for determining viral contamination in drinking water, which resulted in new purification standards.
Joseph Louis Melnick was born in Boston on Oct. 9, 1914, moved with his family to New Haven when he was 7. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1936 and three years later earned a Ph.D. in physiological chemistry at Yale. He became a professor of epidemiology in 1954.
In 1957, he became chief virologist at the division of biological standards at the National Institutes of Health. Although Dr. Melnick did not have a medical degree, he moved to Baylor in 1958 to become founding chairman of the medical school's department of virology and epidemiology. In 1960, Dr. Melnick showed that the weakened strains of polio virus used by Dr. Albert Sabin to make his oral vaccine produced less damage to the nervous system than the strains used in a competing vaccine. Dr. Melnick is credited with being the first to conceptualize, classify and name a number of virus groups, including enteroviruses. From 1968 to 1991, Dr. Melnick was dean of graduate sciences at Baylor. For many years, he wrote the section on virology for a standard textbook on microbiology and he was chief editor of three scientific journals.
Location of papers:
Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library
John P. McGovern Historical Collections & Research Center
1133 John Freeman Blvd.
Houston, TX 77030
713-799-7135 (on Thursdays and Fridays)
Description of papers: The Joseph Melnick Collection is a large collection -- 109 cubic feet of reprints and journal articles, includes virus research (with polio papers therein). Many boxes are focused on polio which was important in the early part of his career. Another large portion of this collection focuses on the various viruses (e.g. influenza) that were the focus of Dr. Melnick's later career.
Letter from Dr. Melnick to Dr. Harold E. Varmus regarding HIV virus, May 10, 1985.
Major Articles: Joseph Louis Melnick, PhD
Aticles found at HighWire Press® Stanford University (*Asterisk denotes article is free of subscription fee.)
Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.* J C Lance, C P Gerba, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Oct 1976; 32: 520 - 526.
Reconcentration of poliovirus from sewage.* S Farrah, C Wallis, P T Shaffer, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Nov 1976; 32: 653 - 658.
Virus and bacteria removal from wastewater by land treatment.* R G Gilbert, C P Gerba, R C Rice, H Bouwer, C Wallis, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Sep 1976; 32: 333 - 338. Concentration of enteroviruses from large volumes of tap water, treated sewage, and seawater.* C P Gerba, S R Farrah, S M Goyal, C Wallis, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Mar 1978; 35: 540 - 548.
Round robin investigation of methods for the recovery of poliovirus from drinking water.* J L Melnick, R Safferman, V C Rao, S Goyal, G Berg, D R Dahling, B A Wright, E Akin, R Stetler, and C Sorber. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Jan 1984; 47: 144 - 150.
Development of quantitative methods for the detection of enteroviruses in sewage sludges during activation and following land disposal.* C J Hurst, S R Farrah, C P Gerba, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Jul 1978; 36: 81 - 89. Role of sediment in the persistence of enteroviruses in the estuarine environment.* E M Smith, C P Gerba, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Apr 1978; 35: 685 - 689.
Concentration of poliovirus from tap water onto membrane filters with aluminum chloride at ambient pH levels.* S R Farrah, S M Goyal, C P Gerba, C Wallis, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Mar 1978; 35: 624 - 626.
Serological Epidemiology of Poliomyelitis on St. Vincent Island, Federation of West Indies. Richard Proctor, Joseph L. Melnick, Leslie Spence, and Wilbur G. Downs. Am J Trop Med Hyg, Jul 1961; 10: 579 - 582. Current status of poliovirus infections.* JL Melnick. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., Jul 1996; 9: 293 - 300.
Poliomyelitis: what are the prospects for eradication and rehabilitation? Dean T Jamison, Alberto M Torres, Lincoln C Chen, And Joseph L Melnick. Health Policy Plan., Jun 1991; 6: 107 - 118.
Chlorination Of Human, Monkey-Adapted And Mouse Strains Of Poliomyelitis Virus. James D. Trask, Joseph L. Melnick, And Herbert A. Wenner. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1945; 41: 30 - 40. Poliomyelitis Virus In Urban Sewage In Epidemic And In Nonepidemic Times. Joseph L. Melnick Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1947; 45: 240 - 253.
Tonsillectomy In Experimental Poliomyelitis. Herdis Von Magnus And Joseph L. Melnick. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1948; 48: 113 - 119.
Comparative Susceptibility Of Cynomolgus And Other Monkey Species To Poliomyelitis Virus By The Intracerebral And Oral Routes. Joseph L. Melnick And Herdis Von Magnus. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1948; 48: 107 - 112.
Isolation Of Poliomyelitis Virus From Single Species Of Flies Collected During An Urban Epidemic. Joseph L. Melnick. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1949; 49: 8 - 16. Social Serology: Antibody Levels In A Normal Young Population During An Epidemic Of Poliomyelitis Joseph L. Melnick And Nada Ledinko Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1951; 54: 354 - 382.
Antibodies To Three Different Antigenic Types Of Poliomyelitis Virus In Sera From North Alaskan Eskimos. John R. Paul, John T. Riordan, And Joseph L. Melnick. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1951; 54: 275 - 285.
Comparative Neutralizing Antibody Patterns To Lansing (Type 2) Poliomyelitis Virus In Different Populations. John R. Paul, Joseph L. Melnick, And John T. Riordan. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1952; 56: 232 - 251.
Multiplication Of Poliomyelitis Viruses In Tissue Cultures Of Monkey Testes: I. Growth Curves Of Type 1 (Brunhilde) And Type 2 (Lansing) Strains And Description Of A Quantitative Neutralization Test. Nada Ledinko, John T. Riordan, And Joseph L. Melnick Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1952; 55: 323 - 338.
Multiplication Of Poliomyelitis Viruses In Tissue Cultures Op Monkey Testes: I. Direct Isolation And Typing Of Strains Feom Human Stools And Spinal Cords In Roller Tubes. John T. Riordan, Nada Ledinko, And Joseph L. Melnick. Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1952; 55: 339 - 346.
A Survey Of Neutralizing Antibodies To Polio-Myelitis Virus In Cairo, Egypt. John R. Paul, Joseph L. Melnick, Vohammie H. Barnett, And Natan Goldblum. Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1952; 55: 402 - 413.
Poliomyelitis In Hidalgo County, Texas, 1948 Poliomyelitis And Coxsackie Viruses From Flies. Joseph L. Melnick And Richard P. Dow. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1953; 58: 288 - 309.
Poliomyelitis Viruses In Tissue Culture: V. Reaction Of Virus And Antibody; Variables Of The Quantitative Neutralization Test. Nada Ledinko And Joseph L. Melnick Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1953; 58: 223 - 247.
Development Of Neutralizing Antibodies Against The Three Types Of Poliomyelitis Virus During An Epidemic Period: The Ratio Of Inapparent Infection To Clinical Poliomyelitis. Joseph L. Melnick And Nada Ledinko. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1953; 58: 207 - 222.
A Winter Outbreak Of Poliomyelitis In New York City: The Complement-Fixation Test As An Aid In Rapid Diagnosis. Joseph L. Melnick, James R. Mccarroll, And Dorothy M. Horstmann. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1956; 63: 95 - 114.
Environmental Studies Of Endemic Enteric Virus Infections: I. Community Seroimmune Patterns And Poliovirus Infection Rates. Joseph L. Melnick, Mary Walton, Peter Isacson, Warren Cardwell, Edward M. Opton, Richard Prindle, Robert L. Parr, Ira L. Myers, And Winifred M. Mendez. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1957; 65: 1 - 28.
Environmental Studies Of Endemic Enteric Virus Infections: Ii. Poliovirus Infections In Household Units. Peter Isacson, Joseph L. Melnick, Mary Walton, Edward M. Opton, Warren Cardwell, Richard Prindle, Robert L. Parr, Ira L. Myers, And Winifred M. Mendez. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1957; 65: 29 - 42.
An Outbreak Of Poliomyelitis In Israel In 1961 And The Use Of Attenuated Type 1 Vaccine In Its Control. Jacob Yofe, Natan Goldblum, Emanuel Eylan, And Joseph L. Melnick. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1962; 76: 225 - 238.
Free And Bound Virus In Serum After Administration Of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine. Joseph L. Melnick, Richard O. Proctor, Angel R. Ocampo, Arwin R. Diwan, And Edna Ben-Porath. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1966; 84: 329 - 342.
Differentiation And Separation Of Attenuated And Virulent Polioviruses By Adsorption To Aluminum Salts. Craig Wallis, Joseph L. Melnick, And Ira L. Wimberly. Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1963; 77: 250 - 257.
Evaluation Of Community Vaccination Against Poliomyelitis In Houston, Texas, 1962. Joseph L. Melnick And Wade P. Parks. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1964; 80: 157 - 174.
Effect of Milk and Cream on the Thermal Inactivation of Human Poliomyelitis Virus.* Albert S. Kaplan and Joseph L. Melnick. Am J Public Health, May 1952; 42: 525 - 534.
Application Of Tissue Culture Methods To Epidemiological Studies Of Poliomyelitis.* Joseph L. Melnick. Am J Public Health, May 1954; 44: 571 - 580.
Serologic Epidemiology of Poliomyelitis.* Joseph L. Melnick, John R. Paul, and Mary Walton. Am J Public Health, Apr 1955; 45: 429 - 437.
Spread of Poliomyelitis Infection in Nursery Schools.* James R. McCarroll, Joseph L. Melnick, and Dorothy M. Horstmann. Am J Public Health, Dec 1955; 45: 1541 - 1550.
The Use of a Portable Tissue Culture Laboratory in a Field Study of Tropical Poliomyelitis.* Joseph L. Melnick. Am J Public Health, Sep 1958; 48: 1170 - 1180.
Problems Associated with the Use of Live Poliovirus Vaccine.* Joseph L. Melnick. Am J Public Health, Jul 1960; 50: 1013 - 1031. Population Genetics Applied to Live Poliovirus Vaccine.* Joseph L. Melnick. Am J Public Health, Mar 1962; 52: 472 - 483.
Vaccination against poliomyelitis: present possibilities and future prospects.* J L Melnick. Am J Public Health, Mar 1988; 78: 304 - 305.
Concentration and purification of enteroviruses by membrane chromatography.* M Henderson, C Wallis, and J L Melnick. Appl. Envir. Microbiol., Nov 1976; 32: 689 - 693.
Developing gap in immunity to poliomyelitis in an urban area. J. L. Melnick, M. Burkhardt, L. H. Taber, and P. N. Erckman. JAMA, Aug 1969; 209: 1181.
Animal viruses: Replication of Poliovirus in Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated Human Lymphocytes.* Frank T. C. Willems, Joseph L. Melnick, and William E. Rawls. J. Virol., May 1969; 3: 451 - 457.
Mechanism of Plaque Inhibition of Poliovirus Possessing the d Marker.* C. Wallis and J. L. Melnick. J. Gen. Virol., Dec 1968; 3: 349 - 357.
Thermal Inactivation Of Poliovirus Under Anaerobic Conditions.* Craig Wallis And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Bacteriol., Sep 1962; 84: 389 - 392. Thermosensitivity Of Poliovirus.* Craig Wallis And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Bacteriol., Sep 1963; 86: 499 - 504.
Virology: Cystine Dependence Of Thermoresistant Mutants Of Poliovirus.* Craig Wallis And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Bacteriol., Apr 1965; 89: 1160 - 1161.
Virology: Chromatography Of Poliovirus On Calcium Phosphate And Its Application To The Identification Of Vaccine Progeny Strains.* Yoshikatsu Ozaki, Arwin R. Diwan, Mizuho Takizawa, And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Bacteriol., Mar 1965; 89: 603 - 610.
Susceptibility Of Cebus Capucina (The South American Ringtail Monkey) And Cercopithecus Cephus (The African Mustache Monkey) To Poliomyelitis Virus.* Joseph L. Melnick and John R. Paul. J. Exp. Med., Oct 1943; 78: 273 - 283.
The Detection Of Poliomyelitis Virus In Flies Collected During Epidemics Of Poliomyelitis: I. Methods, Results, And Types Of Flies Involved.* James D. Trask, John R. Paul, Joseph L. Melnick, And With The Technical Assistance Of John T. Riordan And Marshall Bishop. J. Exp. Med., Jun 1943; 77: 531 - 544.
The Ultracentrifuge As An Aid In The Detection Of Poliomyelitis Virus.* Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Mar 1943; 77: 195 - 204.
The Susceptibility Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys To Poliomyelitis Virus Administered By Mouth: A Study Of The Distribution Of Virus In The Tissues Of Orally Infected Animals.* Dorothy M. Horstmann, Joseph L. Melnick, Robert Ward, And M. José Sá Fleitas. J. Exp. Med., Sep 1947; 86: 309 - 323.
Active Immunity To Poliomyelitis In Chimpanzees Following Subclinical Infection.* Joseph L. Melnick and Dorothy M. Horstmann. J. Exp. Med., Feb 1947; 85: 287 - 303.
Poliomyelitis In Chimpanzees: Studies In Homologous And Heterologous Immunity Following Inapparent Infection.* Dorothy M. Horstmann And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Jun 1950; 91: 573 - 597.
Ohio Strains Of A Virus Pathogenic For Infant Mice (Coxsackie Group). Simultaneous Occurrence With Poliomyelitis* Virus In Patients With "Summer Grippe." Joseph L. Melnick, Nada Ledinko, Albert S. Kaplan, And Lisbeth M. Kraft. J. Exp. Med., Jan 1950; 91: 185 - 195.
An Epidemic Of Paralytic Poliomyelitis Characterized By Dual Infections With Poliomyelitis And Coxsackie Viruses.* Joseph L. Melnick, Albert S. Kaplan, Eva Zabin, Guillermo Contreras, And Newton W. Larkum. J. Exp. Med., Nov 1951; 94: 471 - 492.
The Survival Of Poliomyelitis And Coxsackie Viruses Following Their Ingestion By Flies.* Joseph L. Melnick And Lawrence R. Penner. J. Exp. Med., Sep 1952; 96: 255 - 271.
Complement-Fixing Antibodies To Type 2 (Lansing) Poliomyelitis Virus In A Normal Population Of A Subtropical Area.* Natan Goldblum and Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Aug 1952; 96: 175 - 185.
Interference Between Poliomyelitis Viruses In Tissue Culture.* Nada Ledinko And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Sep 1954; 100: 247 - 267.
Sequence Of Morphological Changes In Epithelial Cell Cultures Infected With Poliovirus.* Magdalena Reissig, David W. Howes, And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Sep 1956; 104: 289 - 304.
The Intracellular Localization Of Poliomyelitis Virus.* Albert S. Kaplan And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Jan 1953; 97: 91 - 116.
An Endemiological Study Of Enteric Virus Infections: Poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, And Orphan (Echo) Viruses Isolated. From Normal Children In Two Socio-Economic Groups.* Edward I. Honig, Joseph L. Melnick, Peter Isacson, Robert Parr, Ira L. Myers, And Mary Walton. J. Exp. Med., Feb 1956; 103: 247 - 262.
In Vitro Differentiation Of Virulent And Attenuated Polioviruses By Their Growth Characteristics On Ms Cells.* Yukishige Kanda And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Exp. Med., Jan 1959; 109: 9 - 24.
An Aluminum Marker For The Differentiation And Separation Of Virulent And Attenuated Polioviruses.* Craig Wallis, Joseph L. Melnick, George D. Ferry, and Ira L. Wimberly J. Exp. Med., Apr 1962; 115: 763 - 775.
Detection With The Electron Microscope Of Rod-Shaped Particles In Stools Of Normal And Poliomyelitic Individuals. Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Jan 1944; 48: 25 - 28.
The Recovery of Poliomyelitis Virus from the Stools of Experimentally Infected Monkeys and Chimpanzees. Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Jul 1946; 53: 277 - 290.
Sedimentation of Poliomyelitis Virus in the Sharples Centrifuge. Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Jun 1946; 53: 157 - 162.
Antibody Response in Monkeys Following Oral Administration of Poliomyelitis Virus. Herdis von Magnus and Joseph L. Melnick J. Immunol., Dec 1948; 60: 583 - 596.
Differences in the Degree of Infectiousness of two Related Strains of Poliomyelitis Virus Following their Oral Administration to Monkeys. Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Sep 1951; 67: 219 - 224.
Immunity Following Oral Administration of Poliomyelitis Virus to Monkeys. Joseph L. Melnick and Nada Ledinko. J. Immunol., Sep 1951; 67: 213 - 217.
The Size Of Coxsackie Viruses And Lansing Poliomyelitis Virus Determined By Sedimentation And Ultrafiltration. Joseph L. Melnick, Morris Rhian, Joel Warren, And Sydney S. Breese, Jr. J. Immunol., Aug 1951; 67: 151 - 162.
Poliomyelitis Antibodies in Human Gamma Globulin. Edward M. Opton, Daizo Nagaki, and Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Sep 1955; 75: 178 - 185.
Micro-Epidemiology of Poliomyelitis and Herpes-B Infections: Spread of the Viruses Within Tissue Cultures. Francis L. Black and Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Mar 1955; 74: 236 - 242.
A Comparative Study Of Type 2 Poliomyelitis Viruses: Ii. Antigenic Differences Relating To 18 Type 2 Strains. Herbert A. Wenner, Paul Kamitsuka, Margaret Lenahan, Joseph L. Melnick, And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Oct 1956; 77: 220 - 231.
Morphologic Characteristics Of Plaques Produced On Monkey Kidney Monolayer Cultures By Enteric Viruses (Poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, And Echo Groups). G. D. Hsiung And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Feb 1957; 78: 128 - 136.
Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Concentration on Plaque Formation of Virulent and Attenuated Polioviruses. G. D. Hsiung and Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Apr 1958; 80: 282 - 293.
Adsorption, Multiplication, and Cytopathogenicity of Enteroviruses (Poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, and Echo Groups) in Susceptible and Resistant Monkey Kidney Cells. G. D. Hsiung and Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Jan 1958; 80: 45 - 52.
Reaction Of Poliovirus And Formaldehyde In Magnesium Chloride Solution To Enhance Potency Of Killed-Virus Vaccine. Yoshikatsu Ozaki And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Mar 1963; 90: 429 - 437.
Antigenic Characterization Of Oral Poliovaccine Progeny By Neutralization Kinetics. Yoshikatsu Ozaki, Arwin R. Diwan, W. David Mcbride, And Joseph L. Melnick. J. Immunol., Feb 1963; 90: 288 - 296.
Poliomyelitis And Coxsackie Viruses In Paralytic Poliomyelitis. Edward C. Curnen And Joseph L. Melnick. Pediatrics, Aug 1951; 8: 237 – 248.
Two Additional Examples Of Viremia In Asymptomatic Poliomyelitis Infection. David C. Davis And Joseph L. Melnick. Pediatrics, Dec 1957; 20: 975 - 978.
The Degree And Duration Of Poliomyelitis Virus Excretion Among Vaccinated Household Contacts Of Clinical Cases Of Poliomyelitis. David C. Davis, Martha J. Lipson, David H. Carver, Joseph L. Melnick, And Frederick C. Robbins. Pediatrics, Jul 1958; 22: 33 - 40.
The Detection Of Poliomyelitis Virus In Flies. J. R. Paul, J. D. Trask, M. B. Bishop, J. L. Melnick, And A. E. Casey. Science, Oct 1941; 94: 395 - 396.
Poliomyelitis Virus In Fly-Contaminated Food Collected At An Epidemic. Robert Ward, Joseph L. Melnick, And Dorothy M. Horstmann. Science, May 1945; 101: 491 - 493.
Poliomyelitis Viruses in Tissue Culture. Joseph L. Melnick. Science, Jun 1952; 115: 3.
Rapid Development of Drug-Resistant Mutants of Poliovirus. Joseph L. Melnick, Derek Crowther, and Julio Barrera-Oro. Science, Aug 1961; 134: 557.
Wastewater renovation and reuse: virus removal by soil filtration. RG Gilbert, RC Rice, H Bouwer, CP Gerba, C Wallis, and JL Melnick. Science, Jun 1976; 192: 1004 - 1005.
Articles Found at ScienceDirect.com
Albert B. Sabin. Joseph L. Melnick and Florian Horaud. Biologicals, Volume 21, Issue 4, December 1993, Pages 299-303.
The Discovery of the Enteroviruses and the Classification of Poliovirus Among Them. Joseph L. Melnick. Biologicals, Volume 21, Issue 4, December 1993, Pages 305-309 .
Age differences in immunity against wild and vaccine strains of poliovirus prior to the 1988 outbreak in Israel and response to booster immunization. Manfred S. Green, Rachel Handsher, Dani Cohen, Joseph L. Melnick, Raphael Slepon, Ella Mendelsohn and Yehuda L. Danon. Vaccine, Volume 11, Issue 1, 1993, Pages 75-81.
Properties and classification of hepatitis A virus. Joseph L. Melnick. Vaccine, Volume 10, Supplement 1, 1992, Pages S24-S26.
Removal of indigenous rotaviruses during primary settling and activated-sludge treatment of raw sewage. V. Chalapati Rao, Theodore G. Metcalf and Joseph L. Melnick. Water Research, Volume 21, Issue 2, February 1987, Pages 171-177.
Enhancement of viral hepatitis B antibody (anti-HBs) response to a synthetic cyclic peptide by priming with anti-idiotype antibodies. Ronald C. Kennedy, James T. Sparrow, Yanuario Sanchez, Joseph L. Melnick and Gordon R. Dreesman. Virology, Volume 136, Issue 1, 15 July 1984, Pages 247-252.
A common human anti-hepatitis B surface antigen idiotype is associated with the group a conformation-dependent antigenic determinant. Ronald C. Kennedy, Yanuario Sanchez, Irina Ionescu-Matiu, Joseph L. Melnick and Gordon R. Dreesman. Virology, Volume 122, Issue 1, 15 October 1982, Pages 219-221.
Viruses in surface and drinking waters. Joseph L. Melnick and Charles P. Gerba. Environment International, Volume 7, Issue 1, 1982, Pages 3-7.
Evidence for the presence of repeating antigenic determinants in the major and minor polypeptides derived from hepatitis B surface antigen. Yanuario Sanchez, Irina Ionescu-Matiu, Gordon R. Dreesman, F. Blaine Hollinger and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 114, Issue 1, 15 October 1981, Pages 71-80.
R+ bacteria in estuarine sediments. Sagar M. Goyal, Charles P. Gerba and Joseph L. Melnick. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 10, Issue 1, January 1979, Pages 25-27.
The hazards of incorporating charcoal filters into domestic water systems. Craig Wallis, Charles H. Stagg and Joseph L. Melnick Water Research, Volume 8, Issue 2, February 1974, Pages 111-113.
Magnesium chloride enhancement of cell susceptibility to poliovirus. Craig Wallis and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 16, Issue 2, February 1962, Pages 122-132.
Studies of the inhibitory action of guanidine on poliovirus multiplication in cell cultures. Derek Crowther and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 15, Issue 1, September 1961, Pages 65-74.
The incorporation of neutral red and acridine orange into developing poliovirus particles making them photosensitive. Derek Crowther and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 14, Issue 1, May 1961, Pages 11-21.
Size and structure of echo, poliomyelitis, and measles viruses determined by ionizing radiation and ultrafiltration. Matilda Benyesh, Ernest C. Pollard, Edward M. Opton, Francis L. Black, W. Dexter Bellamy and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 5, Issue 2, April 1958, Pages 256-274.
The growth cycle of poliovirus in monkey kidney cells: I. Maturation and release of virus in monolayer cultures. David W. Howes and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 4, Issue 1, August 1957, Pages 97-108.
Plaque formation with poliomyelitis, coxsackie, and orphan (echo) viruses in bottle cultures of monkey epithelial cells. G. D. Hsiung and Joseph L. Melnick Virology, Volume 1, Issue 5, December 1955, Pages 533-535.
[untitled] Author(s) of Review: Robert R. Wagner. Reviewed Work(s): Virology. Bernard N. Fields; David M. Knipe; Robert N. Chanock; Joseph L. Melnick; Bernard Roizman; Robert E. Shope. The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 61, No. 2 (Jun., 1986), pp. 268-269.
Review of Medical Microbiology. Ernest Jawetz; Edward A Adelberg; Joseph L Melnick Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1987. Available at 455 libraries.
Frontiers in virology : in honor of Joseph L. Melnick on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Joseph L Melnick; Fred Rapp. Basel; New York : S. Karger, 1975. Located at 40 libraries.
My Role In The Discovery And Classification Of The Enteroviruses. Joseph L Melnick. Annual review of microbiology. 50, (1996):1. Publisher: Stanford, Calif. : Annual Reviews, Inc..1947. Available at 1316 libraries.
[Joseph L. Melnick, biographical materials] Joseph L Melnick Archival Material 1965. Located at University of Wisconsin Kremer’s Collection (Pharmacy). Madison, WI. Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg's medical microbiology. Ernest Jawetz; George F Brooks; Janet S Butel; Stephen A Morse; Joseph L Melnick; Edward A Adelberg. Stamford, CT : Appleton & Lange, ©1998. Located at 338 libraries.
Current Status of Poliovirus Infections. Joseph L Melnick. Clinical microbiology reviews. 9, no. 3, (1996): 293. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology. 1988. Database: ArticleFirst Located at 525 libraries.
A tribute to Joseph L. Melnick. FL Black; GD Hsiung; CA Phillips; G Plummer; F Rapp. Progress in medical virology. Fortschritte der medizinischen Virusforschung. Progr̐ưes en virologie m̐ưedicale, 1975; 21: VII-IX. MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Located at 328 libraries.
Enteric viruses in water. Joseph L Melnick; Mo'atsah ha-le'umit le-mehkar ule-fituah (Israel). Basel ; New York : Karger, 1984. Located at 179 libraries.
Microbiologie Médicale. Ernest Jawetz; Edward A Adelberg; Joseph L Melnick. Language: French Type: Book Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval ; Paris : Librarie Maloine, 1973. Located at 18 libraries in Quebec, France and Belgium.
Development of a quantitative method for detecting enteroviruses in esturaine sediments. Charles P Gerba; Eric M Smith; Joseph L Melnick. 1977. Located at Texas State Library. Austin, TX.
Progress in Medical Virology. Joseph L Melnick. Basel ; Paris : Karger, 1988. Located at 8 libraries: National Agr Library. Beltsville, MD 20705 United States, Katholieke Univ Te Leuven. Leuven, 3000 Belgium, Bibliotheque de L'Univ Paris Vii. Paris Cedex 05, 75251 France, Bibliotheque de L'Univ Paris Vii, Rcon; Paris Cedex 05, 75251 France, Bu de la Mediterranee Marseille Cedex 05, 13385 France; Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Brazil; Nihon Univ School of Dent Library, Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, 101 Japan; Saitama College of Health Science Library,Urawa-Shi Saitama, 336-0000 Japan.
Manual de microbiología médica. Ernest Jawetz; Joseph L Melnick; Edward A Adelberg. Language: Spanish Type: Book México : El Manual Moderno, 1981. Located at Biblioteca-Itesm, Monterrey, N.L. 64849 Mexico; Univ Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Cd. Juarez, Chih., 32310 Mexico; Univ Veracruzana Biblioteca Central, Xalapa Veracruz, 91000 Mexico; Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic, Nay., 63190 Mexico; Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tab., 86000 Mexico.
Medizinische Mikrobiologie. Ernest Jawetz; Joseph L Melnick; Edward A Adelberg; Günther Maass. Language: German Type: Book. Berlin: Heidelberg ; New York: Springer, 1966. Located at Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Frankfurt AM Main, D-60322 Germany; Fachhochschule Fulda. Fulda, 36039 Germany; Univ of Frankfurt Library. Frankfurt, 60325 Germany; Universitatsbibliothek Mainz. Mainz, 55128 Germany; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt. Darmstadt, 64283 Germany.
Symposium on viruses. Joseph L Melnick; Erwin Rabin. New York, 1965. Located at Queen's Univ, Science Library, Belfast, BT9 5EQ United Kingdom. Tıbbi mikrobiyoloji. Ernest Jawetz; Joseph L Melnick; Edward A Adelberg; Ekrem Akman; Ekrem Gülmezoğlu. Language: Turkish Type: Book Ankara: H.Ü., 1976. Located at Pamukkale Univ. Denizli, 20020 Turkey.
Przegląd mikrobiologii lekarskiej. Ernest Jawetz; Joseph L Melnick; Edward A Adelberg; Grzegorz Abgarowicz; Andrzej Piekarowicz. Language: Polish Type: Book. Warszawa : Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich, 1974. Two editions located at NUKAT, Union Catalog of Polish Libraries. Warsaw, 00 312 Poland.
Proceedings of the Second International Congress for Virology. Budapest. 1971. Joseph L Melnick Publisher: Basel: S. Karger, 1972. Located at Swiss Nat Library Bern, 3003 Switzerland.
Key word suggestions for additional publication searches: polio, thermostabilized live polio vaccines, enteroviruses, picornaviruses, picodnaviruses or parvoviruses and papovaviruses, enteric viruses, adenovirus, Coxsackie viruses, cervical cancer, herpes virus, wastewater, virus, tap water, Influenza virus, Hepatitis, viral infections.